By Nell Dale, Henry M. Walker
This article expands the normal path concentration to check not just the constitution of a knowledge item, but additionally its variety. This broader concentration calls for a new paradigm for classifying info varieties. inside each one type, the varied ADTs are awarded utilizing axiomatic requisites. numerous implementation possible choices are mentioned for every ADT and algorithms are written in a pseudo-code in keeping with the Pascal-Modula- 2-Ada version. subsequent, the Big-O complexity of every implementation is mentioned and every ADT is utilized in an software. vintage algorithms offer purposes for a few of the ADTs; implementation of a formerly outlined ADT is the applying for others. The result's a transparent, logical presentation that offers scholars a superb, functional beginning in present software program engineering ideas. purposes are integrated to illustrate how the ADTs are utilized in problem-solving. confirmed pedagogical beneficial properties reminiscent of unique examples, highlighted definitions, various illustrations, and workouts educate problem-solving abilities.
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Extra info for Abstract data types: specifications, implementations, and applications
When several processors are available, then parallel algorithms should be considered. A single book, of course, cannot cover all types of algorithms for all types of processing environments. However, various approaches and ideas can and should be introduced at all levels of the curriculum, and this text provides some basic insights into algorithm development in both the uniprocessor and multiprocessor environments. 3 For example, the following curricular recommendations include parallelism as an important theme: ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Curriculum Task Force, Computing Curriculum 1991, IEEE Computer Society Press and ACM Press, 1991.
Data in multidimensional structures are accessed through two or more subscripts. Data in linear structures are organized through either explicit subscripts or an implicit ordering where each data item (except the last) has an explicit successor. This classification of data types begins at a high level of abstraction. Then, as shown in Figure 1, each subsequent level in the hierarchy is obtained by adding logical properties to the operations available within the ADT. The nature of these properties is explained through the book as each kind of data type is examined in detail.
Finally, we especially want to thank our families for their encouragement and support throughout the writing of this book. The writing of a book spans many cycles of joy and frustration, elation and discouragement, and anticipation and concern, and our families have tolerated us through these many ups and downs. Special thanks to Al, Terry, Donna, and Barbara for your support. D. W. Page xv Contents 1 Abstract Specification Techniques 1 What are Abstract Data Types? 2 Abstraction 4 Procedural Abstraction 4 Data Abstraction 5 Specification Techniques 5 Specification of an Abstract Data Type 6 Axiomatic (Algebraic) Specifications 7 Specifications Using Abstract Models 13 A Word About Notation 14 Application 15 UnsortedList ADT 15 Additional Functions 21 Binary Constructor Concat 21 Observer Function IsIn 23 Observer Function Length 25 Alternative Way of Decomposition 25 Relating Axioms and Implementations 26 Linked List Implementation of a Stack (Using Pointers) 27 Summary 31 Exercises 32 2 Analysis of Algorithms 35 Factors Involved in Comparing Algorithms 36 Difficulties of Time Analysis 37 Micro/Machine-Specific Analysis 37 Micro/Machine-Independent Analysis 38 Big-O Notation 42 Some Common Orders 47 Page xvi Families of Function 48 Application 49 Unsorted List 49 List Implemented in an Array 50 List Implemented in a Linked Structure 50 Comparison of Implementations 51 Sorted List 51 Summary 55 Exercises 55 3 Towards More Generality in Algorithms 63 Writing More General Algorithms 64 Language-Independent Algorithms 64 Generalized Error Handling 66 Type-Independent Algorithms 67 Information Hiding with Modules 68 Unsortedlist Module 69 Visibility and Access 72 Declaration of the Structure 73 Generic Data Types 74 Parallel Algorithms 77 Example: Bank Account 78 Two Transactions 78 Approaches to Parallelism 79 Hardware Approaches 79 Algorithm Approaches 83 Example: Determining which Students can Graduate 85 Example: The Flow of Pollutants in a Stream 89 Speed Up and Cost 90 Summary 91 Exercises 92 4 Unstructured Data Types 97 Review of Axiomatic Specifications 98 Set 99 Specification 99 Page xvii Implementation 102 Explicit Representation 103 Implicit Representation 108 Union/Find Algorithms 113 Application 122 Record 122 Specification 122 Implementation and Application 123 Keyed Table 123 Specification 123 Unbounded vs.
Abstract data types: specifications, implementations, and applications by Nell Dale, Henry M. Walker